Understanding Drug Addiction
For a general definition we can say that drug addiction is the compulsive use of certain drugs to the point that the user has lost the ability to cease using. The relative addiction of each drug is different in terms of its chemical compound and also varies from person to person. For example, codeine requires more exposure to form an addiction than does cocaine or heroin. One person may also be more psychologically or genetically predisposed to addiction than another, and this may not be known until after the person is addicted and in need of treatment. Learn more about the signs of drug abuse here.
Addiction to a drug usually has two separate components: a psychological and a physical dependency. From a psychological standpoint it is being used to kill or mask pain, to feel pleasure, or to relieve stress. From a physical perspective, a drug addict uses to feel "normal". Over time, the body has become so used to the presence of substances that without it the person will begin to have withdrawal symptoms. Substance abuse is different from drug addiction. Learn more about the common symptoms of both problems.
What is Drug Abuse Really?
Drug abuse and addiction are two different but related concerns. Abusing drugs does not necessarily mean a person is addicted. A drug addiction is formed when changes are made to the brain in ways that fosters the need for constant use. Habitual abuse of illicit or prescription medications is an indicator of addiction. Also it brings with it a number of other physical, emotional, social and psychological changes and dependencies.
When a person takes a drug it has different interactions with the brain. Most commonly it imitates a brain's neurotransmitter system resulting in a feeling of pleasure or euphoria. The natural reward system in the brain releases the neurotransmitter dopamine. Some drugs imitate this sensation. Others release an abundance of dopamine creating euphoria. People use substances to experience these sensations. It is this sensation that contributes to continued drug abuse and ultimately addiction.
Substances that contribute to drug abuse can vary, but usually the public thinks of the more illicit drugs like cocaine, heroin, or methamphetamine. All of them have different interactions with the brain and body. Stimulant drugs heighten senses and increase body functions (cocaine and methamphetamine). Depressants do the opposite by slowing down the system and body functions. Common depressant drugs are heroin and prescription painkillers. Marijuana and similar substances are called cannabinoids and affect different aspects of the limbic system (memory and cognitive functions).
The following table breaks down a number of illicit or street drugs that are commonly abused. Also listed are common street names, the mode of intake and its classification.
|Drug Name||Common Street Names||How its Used||Classification|
|Cocaine||coke, blow, sugar, snow||snorted, smoked, injected||Stimulant|
|Crack (rock cocaine)||rock, crumbs, hail, gravel||smoked, injected||Stimulant|
|Crystal Meth||ice, glass, crystal||smoked, injected, snorted||Stimulant|
|Heroin||H, junk, tar, smack, dope||injected, smoked, snorted||Depressant|
|LSD||acid, blue heaven, cubes||swallowed||Psychoactive|
|Marijuana||weed, grass, mary jane, bud||smoked, eaten (mixed with food)||Cannabinoid|
|MDMA||ecstasy, molly||swallowed, snorted||Psychoactive|
|Mephedrone||bath salts||swallowed, snorted, injected||Stimulant|
|Methamphetamine||crank, chalk, meth, speed||swallowed, snorted, smoked, injected||Stimulant|
|PCP||angle dust||injected, snorted, swallowed, smoked||Psychoactive|
|Synthetic Marijuana||spice, k2||smoked, eaten (mixed with food)||Cannabinoid|
What Causes Addiction to a Drug?
There are many different ideas an concepts when it comes to drug addiction. It is generally accepted addiction is biological in nature. Addiction to a drug is believed to be created by a changing of the brain's reward functions. The part of the brain that is affected is responsible for behaviors such as eating, exercise and social interaction. When the chemical hits this portion of the brain, known as the mesolimbic dopamine system, excessive levels of dopamine are released causing a general feeling of euphoria, or otherwise called a "high". Over an extended period of time, these short-term "highs" can create long-term effects. As the brain experiences these periods of greater than normal dopamine release, the resultant brain reactions become more severe.
Continued use of the drug causes a person to use more and more in order to have the same level of pleasure, until the use of the drug dominates the normal day-to-day life experiences. Finally, the drug completely takes over the persons rational thought processes, and life cannot continue without it. Within a drug rehab center, cognitive and behavioral therapies are used in addressing these changes to the brain's chemical structure to get that individual back to a level of normalcy.
Different Drugs, Different Reactions
Each drug has a unique effect on the body. Heroin reacts differently than cocaine and even with marijuana addiction. Some drugs are classified as depressants. Examples of this drug class include alcohol, benzodiazepines, and prescription medications. These work by mimicking endorphins that are produced naturally by the body. This drug class relaxes the body and relieves pain. Another general class includes stimulants. Examples of this include amphetamines and methamphetamines ("meth"), crack, nicotine and caffeine.